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Jilan A. Nazeam, Hala M. El-Hefnawy, Abdel-Naser B. Singab

Aloe arborescens plant (Family Asphodelaceae), is one of the main varieties of Aloe used worldwide. Plant filet and exudates extract was fractionated to yield a moderate polar fraction (MPF) and polar fraction (POF). The MPF proved to be most active fraction against HepG2, PC3 and MCF-7 cell lines rather than polar fraction (POF). Chromatographic fractionation of MPF fraction led to the isolation of fifteen compounds, their structures were characterized by comparison of their physical and spectral data MS, NMR (1H NMR) to published data. Isolated compounds were assayed for their cytotoxicity toward the HepG2 cell line. Among these compounds, aloeresin, neoaloeresin, purpurin and aloenin showed potent cytotoxicity, having IC50 values equal to or less than 12 μmole/ml. Since the majority of anticancer compounds is toxic to normal cells, their application in medicine is highly restricted. The effect of bioactive compounds in normal epithelial cells was evaluated at concentrations (100 μg/ml). Aloeresin E, neoaloeresin and purpurin showed the least cytotoxic effect on WISH cells with a percentage of inhibition (0, 8.3, 0%) respectively. On the basis of the expanded understanding that oxidation is a crucial cause of tumor progression, the antioxidant activities of these compounds were determined by measuring 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH photometric method. All the components showed dose-dependent increase in activity. In the light of these results, Aloe arborescens compounds may be considered as lead compounds for the treatment of cancer with a remarkable safety extent, which supports previous claims of the plant traditional use.


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