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EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF NAPOLEONEAE IMPERIALISFAMILY

Abstract

A.F. Onyegbule1*, C.F. Anowi2, T.H. Gugu3and A.U.

 

EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ETHYL ACE

TATE

EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF

NAPOLEONEAE IMPERIALIS

FAMILY

LECYTHIACEAE

A.F. Onyegbule

1

*, C.F. Anowi

2

, T.H. Gugu

3

and A.U. Uto

-

Nedosa

4

1

* Dept of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences,

Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka,

Nigeria

2

Dept of Pharmacognosy and Traditional Medicine, Facu

lty of Pharmaceutical sciences,

Nnamdi Azi

kiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

3

Dept of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Bio

technology,

Facu

lty of Pharmaceutical

Sciences,

Nnamdi Az

ikiwe University, A

wka, Nigeria

4

Dept of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Facu

lty of Pharmaceutical Sciences,

Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

ABSTRACT

N

apoleon

aea imperialis

is used to treat wounds

in Anambra State, Nigeria

. Against this background,

ethyl acetate extract of the leaves were screened against some microorganisms so as to ascert

ain this

claim and to recommend it for further investigation for possible inclusion into official compendium.

T

he

plant leaves were dried, po

wdered subjected to cold maceration with ethyl acetate for 24

hours.

Phytochemical screening was done for alkaloids, saponin, essential oil, phenolic group, steroidal nucleus,

simple sugar, starch, cyanogenic glycoside, proteins and flavonoid using standar

d procedures.

Antimicrobial screenings were done using agar diffusion technique. Antibacterial activity test was

conducted by screening against six

pathogens comprising both Gram

-

positive and Gram

-

negative bacteria

obtained from pharmaceutical

microbiology

laboratory stock. The extract was screened against 24

hour

broth culture of bacteria seeded in the nutrient agar at concentrations 400, 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25

and

3.125 mg/ml in DMSO and incubated at 37

o

C

, for 24 hours and measuring the inhibition z

one diameter

-

IZD.

T

he

phytochemical screening showed availability of alkaloid, saponins, tannins, glycosides and

proteins. Ethyl acetate extract exhibited activity against

E.

coli

,

B.subtilis

and

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

with minimal inhibitory

concentrati

on

of about 50

mg/ml for

E.

coli

, 100

mg/ml for

Pseudomonas

aeruginosa

and 200

mg/ml for

B.

subtilis

.

The

extract demonstrated activities against certain bacteria

confirming the use of the plant in ethno pharmacology and since the root extract are more oft

en used, it is

yet to be confirmed if it has more activity than the leaves against the test organisms. Taking the least IZD

of the standard (Ampicillin) as the breaking point, most of the extracts passed the breaking point.

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