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EVALUATION OF NUTRITIONAL CONSTITUENTS AND ERYTHROPOIETIC PROPERTIES OF FICUS CAPENSIS LEAVE EXTRACT IN THE TREATMENT OF ANEMIA

Abstract

Umeokoli B.O.1, Onyegbule F.A.1*, Ejim S.C.1, Gugu T.H.2 and Igboeme S.O.3

Ficus capensis is used locally for haemolytic and sickle cell anaemia in south eastern Nigeria. This research ascertained the nutrient and mineral constituents, anti-microbial, erythropoietic, and anti- sickling properties of Ficus capensis leaf. Ethanol extraction, phyto-analysis, proximate analysis and antimicrobial screening were carried out using standard methods. Animal erythropoietic study involving 5 groups of 5 rats each was carried out. The first 3 groups were administered oral doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of the extracts, while the last two groups served as negative and positive control for 14 days, with intermittent withdrawal of blood on days 0, 3, 7 and 14 from the retro-orbital veins for haematological analysis. Anti-sickling activity of the plant extract was determined by adopting the Emmel procedure. The phyto-analysis showed significant presence of flavonoids, reducing sugar, saponins, tannins, anthraquinone, starch, proteins, lipids and glycoside. The proximate and mineral analysis showed the presence of proteins, carbohydrates, iron, copper, and cobalt. The antimicrobial result showed moderate antimicrobial activity. The PCV test showed an increase with 50 mg/kg (44%. - 49%) and 100 mg/kg (45% -58%) against 45% - 49% in Positive control and 44% - 45% in Negative control, RBC 6.70±0.08 to 8.82±0.31. The Antisickling test shows inhibition of sickling at 32.81% and 36.9% respectively on both Sickled red blood cell samples from the old patients using concentrations of 50µg/l and 100µg/l. The result indicates significantly high erythropoietic and anti-sickling properties. This justifies its ethno-medicinal use in the treatment of anaemia and anti-sickling crisis.

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