All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal

Opinion - (2022) Volume 11, Issue 9


Haix Ing*
*Correspondence: Haix Ing, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning, China, Email:
Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning, China

Received: 02-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. IJDRT-23-86251; Editor assigned: 04-Sep-2022, Pre QC No. P-86251; Reviewed: 17-Sep-2022, QC No. Q-86251; Revised: 23-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. R-86251; Published: 30-Sep-2022, DOI: 10.37421/2277-1506.2022.11.366


For drugs that don't dissolve well in water, the solid dispersion method is now widely used. The drug–polymer interaction is the determining factor in the design and performance of a solid dispersion because it is essentially a two component system composed of the drug and the polymer. We focus on the fundamentals of this crucial technology as we summarize our current knowledge of solid dispersions, both in the solid state and in dissolution. The drug dispersion mechanism is the key to understanding the behavior of a solid dispersion, which is basically a drug–polymer two-component system. The fundamental aspects of this crucial technology are emphasized as we summarize our current understanding of solid dispersions in both the solid state and in dissolution in this review. It is estimated that dissolution issues plague the majority of compounds currently under development.

Solid dispersions, nano crystals, cyclodextrin complexes, and lipid formulations are some of the solubilization technologies that have been developed to address this pharmaceutical challenge. Solid dispersion is now well-established as a platform technology for the formulation of poorly soluble drugs thanks to the rapid increase in the number of FDA-approved products in recent years. Particularly, formulations containing drugs with a high tendency to crystallize and having a high drug loading have been developed using solid dispersion technology with success. In commercial production, at least three methods of preparing solid dispersions have been utilized with success. Spray drying is useful for drugs that are soluble in at least one volatile solvent4, melt extrusion is useful for drugs with low solubility in common organic solvents, and co-precipitation is useful for drugs with high melting points. Concerns about solid dispersion's drug loading, manufacturing, and stability should be lessened by the encouraging developments [1,2].


In the past a solid dispersion was defined as the dispersion of a drug within a solid matrix that was either a polymer or a small molecule. There have been many different kinds of the dispersed state, including eutectic mixtures, crystalline/glass solutions, and amorphous/crystalline suspensions. A solid dispersion can now be defined more narrowly as the dispersion of a drug in an amorphous polymer matrix where the drug is preferably in the molecularly dispersed state, taking into account its current most common form. The systems that fall under this narrower definition will be the focus of the subsequent discussion. Solid dispersions are typically drug–polymer two-component systems, although products may be made using polymer mixtures and other additives, such as surfactants. As examined underneath, the medication polymer communication is principal to understanding the main issues that emerge in the plan of a strong scattering viz. the dissolution performance, system stability, and drug loading This brief review aims to provide a summary of our current understanding of solid dispersions in terms of this crucial aspect. Numerous excellent reviews of the existing literature cover additional aspects of solid dispersions. A solid dispersion is a deceptively straightforward two-part system in which the polymer and the drug serve as the solute and solvent, respectively. These two-component systems can form multiple structures based on their composition and sample processing history, despite their apparent simplicity. When the drug loading is lower than the equilibrium solubility of the drug in the polymer, the drug should form a homogeneous, thermodynamically stable solution because it is molecularly dispersed within the polymer matrix. Solid dispersion's most desirable structure is this one. However, this situation only occurs at very low drug loading and/or high temperature for the majority of drug polymer pairs. The mixture becomes a supersaturated solution as the temperature drops, and the drug tends to precipitate out. Crystalline drug particles can be dispersed in a polymer matrix as a result, with the concentration of the drug corresponding to its equilibrium solubility at that temperature. Alternately, a meta-stable intermediate structure may form in which amorphous drug aggregates are dispersed in a polymer matrix containing the drug at its amorphous solubility at that temperature, as drug crystallization is a slow process with a higher energy barrier than amorphous phase separation.

A phase diagram is very helpful for understanding the system's structure under various conditions and designing a processing protocol to achieve the desired structure, as it is with all multi-component systems. A simplified drug–polymer phase diagram is shown in, drawing inspiration from numerous small molecule–polymer systems described in the literature. Understanding the super saturation level of such dispersions when they are cooled down (e.g., to the storage temperature) and selecting the lower limit of the processing temperature to obtain a molecular dispersion by melt extrusion both depend on the drug solubility curve in the polymer. In the situation portrayed over, the disintegration of the strong scattering is quick and complete and the supersaturated arrangement around the strong scattering decides the centralization of free medication. Solid dispersion particles, on the other hand, may have a longer release profile because of the polymer's nature or the high drug loading. Phase separation eventually occurs as water continuously penetrates solid dispersion particles. The drug may form amorphous aggregates and the free drug concentration in the dissolution medium will be equivalent to the solubility of amorphous drugs if the polymer matrix continues to inhibit drug crystallization in this circumstance. However, the dissolution advantage of the solid dispersion is lost if the drug is present in a crystalline state in the particles of the solid dispersion [3-6].


This means that the free drug concentration in the solution is reduced to the same level as the solubility of drug crystals. Solubilization technologies have emerged as an essential component for successfully bringing to market the growing number of drugs in development that are poorly water-soluble. One such technology is solid dispersion, which has been approved for a large number of products in recent years, indicating that it is now the preferred method for drug solubilization. The kinetics of phase separation in the solid state and in solution, as well as seemingly innocuous questions like how polymer molecular weight affects the drug crystallization rate, remain unanswered despite significant progress in understanding the nature of solid dispersions. Additionally, research is required into the application of solid dispersions to controlled release technologies like the osmotic pump.


  1. Gorse, G. J., O’Connor, T. Z., Hall, S. L., Vitale, J. N., & Nichol, K. L. (2009). Human coronavirus and acute respiratory illness in older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseJ Infect Dis 199: 847-857.
  2. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  3. Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J et al (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, ChinaThe lancet 395: 497-506.
  4. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  5. Lu, R., Zhao, X., Li, J., Niu, P., Yang, B. et al (2020). Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor bindingThe lancet 395: 565-574.
  6. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  7. Lin, H. X. J., Cho, S., Meyyur Aravamudan, V., Sanda, H. Y., et al (2021). Remdesivir in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment: a review of evidence. Infection 49: 401-410.
  8. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  9. Li, Y., Cao, L., Li, G., Cong, F., Li, Y., et al (2021). Remdesivir metabolite GS-441524 effectively inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection in mouse modelsJ Med Chem 65(4): 2785-2793.
  10. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at

  11. Cox, R. M., Wolf, J. D., Lieber, C. M., Sourimant, J., Lin, M. J., et al (2021). Oral prodrug of remdesivir parent GS-441524 is efficacious against SARS-CoV-2 in ferretsNature communications 12: 1-11.
  12. Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at