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Editorial - (2022) Volume 11, Issue 4


Laurent Ana*
*Correspondence: Laurent Ana, Department of Internal Medicine, Centre for Medical Studies, UK, Email:
Department of Internal Medicine, Centre for Medical Studies, UK

Received: 04-Apr-2022, Manuscript No. IJDRT-22-66092; Editor assigned: 06-Apr-2022, Pre QC No. P-66092; Reviewed: 08-Apr-2022, QC No. Q-66092; Revised: 13-Apr-2022, Manuscript No. R-66092; Published: 18-Apr-2022, DOI: 10.37421/2277-1506.22.11.349


Warfarin is the most often prescribed oral anticoagulant, and its effects have been thoroughly researched. Until recently, the assay method for these chemicals was relatively nonspecific. The introduction of chromatographically based techniques has allowed for a re-evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of oral anticoagulants, however warfarin remains the focus of most studies. The most recent research has focused on the anticoagulant potencies and metabolic routes of several of these medicines' optical isomers. Although the effects of age and certain disorders on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin have been studied, there is still considerable work to be done, particularly with oral anticoagulants other than warfarin. With warfarin, there are a number of well-known pharmacokinetic medication interactions [1].

Alternative medications can be utilized if the pharmaceuticals most likely to minimize anticoagulant effects by enzyme induction are not available. Some interactions' mechanisms have been re-examined. The relationship between hepatic clearance of these medications and the magnitude of the unbound portion in plasma complicates in vivo drug displacement interactions. The potentiation of anticoagulant effect caused by interactions between phenylbutazone and warfarin and metronidazole and warfarin has been attributed to a suppression of the metabolism of the more potent S isomer of warfarin [2].

The availability of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anti-coagulants alongside vitamin K antagonists has provided a wider range of anti-coagulation options, but it has also necessitated a thorough understanding of the pharmacological properties of each of these drugs prior to use in order to maximize therapeutic benefit while minimizing patient harm. Covered areas In addition to its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic features, a drug's action is determined by a combination of factors, including patient characteristics and environmental factors. It is critical to have a thorough comprehension of these concepts. Despite the abundance of data available, particularly on VKAs, our understanding of the pharmacology behind specific medication effects and inter-individual variability remains restricted [3].

Understanding these is becoming more important, with a focus on pharmacogenomics and medication development. The emergence of innovative oral anticoagulants (OACs), which, unlike traditional oral vitamin K antagonists, are administered at fixed doses and have a decreased possibility for medication and food interactions, has increased the opportunity for effective therapy of venous and arterial thromboembolic illnesses in recent years. When compared to VKAs like warfarin and established parenteral medicines like unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin, these medications have similar or better effectiveness and safety characteristics. The innovative OACs work by directly targeting certain components in the coagulation cascade, hence reducing thrombotic processes [4].

The complete characterization of these medicines' pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles has been an important part of their clinical development. A thorough collection of phase I and II studies addressing PK and PD in both healthy participants and patients receiving the drug for active prevention or treatment of thrombosis has backed up the phase III clinical trial program for rivaroxaban. These investigations have shown that rivaroxaban has predictable PK and PD properties, allowing for set oral dosage regimens, as well as characterizing other essential factors, such as the limited clinically significant drug–drug interactions. Novel OACs, unlike classic anticoagulants like VKAs and heparins, are designed to inhibit specific single targets in the coagulation cascade.

Rivaroxaban and apixaban are Factor Xa inhibitors, whereas dabigatran is a thrombin inhibitor (Factor IIa). In addition, the parenteral drug fondaparinux suppresses Factor Xa in an indirect manner. Rivaroxaban, the first oral direct Factor Xa inhibitor, was created to target Factor Xa particularly for numerous reasons. Factor Xa is responsible for converting prothrombin (Factor II) to thrombin at the crossroads of the intrinsic and extrinsic routes in the coagulation process (Factor IIa). Rivaroxaban was found to be extremely selective for Factor Xa in preclinical trials, with an inhibitory efficacy >10,000-fold higher than for similar serine proteases and a constant of inhibition. Rivaroxaban was found to suppress free, prothrombinase-associated, and clot-associated Factor Xa without affecting platelet aggregation directly [5].


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