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Whiker Worth*

Researchers began to think about the possibility of opioid receptors (OR) being present in immune system cells after they became aware of opioids' ability to modulate the immune system. Numerous studies have been conducted to examine the expression of OR subtypes in human and animal immune cells. While some of them failed to find the receptor mRNA, others confirmed OR expression on both the mRNA and protein levels. Despite the fact that this issue is still up for debate, new research is constantly being published. Recent research suggested that the expression level of OR in human peripheral blood lymphocytes could be used as a biomarker to diagnose chronic pain or assess the efficacy of methadone maintenance therapy in ex-opioid addicts. However, additional research is required to confirm these findings' applicability to clinical practice. Opioids, both natural and synthetic, are powerful pain relievers that are frequently used to treat acute, chronic, and inflammatory pain. All other opioid agonists are measured against morphine, the standard. Long-term, high-dose analgesic therapy is necessary for many patients, particularly those with chronic pain. However, opioids are also misused by healthy individuals for their additional properties a positive emotional effect and even euphoria leading to addiction or even intoxication. Unwanted side effects, such as analgesic tolerance, physical dependence (addiction), respiratory depression, constipation, and severe withdrawal symptoms following drug discontinuation, limit the clinical utility of morphine and other opioids.


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