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Whiker Worth

Department of Dermatology, University of Connecticut, Farmington, USA


  • Mini Review   
    Author(s): Whiker Worth*

    Researchers began to think about the possibility of opioid receptors (OR) being present in immune system cells after they became aware of opioids' ability to modulate the immune system. Numerous studies have been conducted to examine the expression of OR subtypes in human and animal immune cells. While some of them failed to find the receptor mRNA, others confirmed OR expression on both the mRNA and protein levels. Despite the fact that this issue is still up for debate, new research is constantly being published. Recent research suggested that the expression level of OR in human peripheral blood lymphocytes could be used as a biomarker to diagnose chronic pain or assess the efficacy of methadone maintenance therapy in ex-opioid addicts. However, additional research is required to confirm these findings' applicability to clinical practice. Opioids, both natural and synthetic, are powe.. Read More»
    DOI: 10.37421/2277-1506.2022.11.382

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